ECAF争议解决机制 ( ECAF Rules of Dispute Resolution )

此文由EOS社区志愿者Achilles ZHANG 原创翻译.( This article was originally translated by EOS community volunteer Achilles ZHANG)


1 Introduction

1 介绍


This document is the Rules of Dispute Resolution (“the Rules”) for the EOS Community (“the Community”) which is defined in the EOS Constitution (“the Constitution”). Disputes arising out of or related to the EOS blockchain or Community are resolved finally under these rules. The Rules may only be amended by referendum of the Community.


本文献是针对EOS公约所定义的EOS社区制定的争议解决机制。由EOS主链、社区引发的或与之相关的争议,最终在此机制下解决。此机制只可能在社区公投的情况下进行修正。


1.1 Nature of Disputes

1.1 争议性质


Disputes may include:


  • Classical disputes where an owner of an assert claims damages and demand remedies;
  • Requests for emergency intervention for bug fixes or account freezes;
  • Requests from interested parties related to data on or related to the EOS blockchain;
  • Requests including legal processes from foreign courts.

By way of example only.


争议可能包括:


  • 资产所有者主张损害赔偿和要求救济的典型争议;
  • 对系统漏洞或账户冻结的紧急干预的请求;
  • 利益相关方对EOS主链上的数据相关或EOS主链相关的请求;
  • 包括来自国外法庭的法律程序的请求;

仅以实例为依据。


2 EOS Core Arbitration Forum

2 EOS核心仲裁法庭


By reference herein, the EOS Core Arbitration Forum (ECAF) (“the Forum”) is created to serve the Community by administering the Rules and providing customary support to the Arbitrator and to the administration of cases.


The Forum is managed by the active Arbitrators. It will author a transparent handbook (“the Handbook”) to document procedures, detail and the like. The Forum may appoint experts, translators, case managers, or arrange support from external forums.


此处援引:EOS核心仲裁法庭(ECAF)(“此法庭”)设立的目的是:通过执行规则和提供惯例支持给仲裁员以及案件的执行,来服务于社区。


该法庭由积极的仲裁员管理。它将授权一个透明的手册来记录程序、细节等等。该法庭可能任命专家、翻译者、案件经理,或者安排来自外部法庭的支持。


2.1 Arbitrators

2.1 仲裁员


The Forum publishes methods for adding and training new arbitrators in the Handbook.


Arbitrators are ordinarily appointed by Community referenda. To revoke an Arbitrator’s appointment requires the approval of two of the three heads of power (BPs, Community, the Forum). Where approved by a Disciplinary Case against the Arbitrator (§2.2), the Forum may intervene in a case and replace the Arbitrator against their will.


The Forum may establish a process to replace the Arbitrator who has become demonstrably not fit to conduct a case. Any such process should seek for confirmation of the Arbitrator if possible.


该法庭在手册中公布增加和训练新的仲裁员的办法。


仲裁员通常通过社区全民公投来获得任命。撤销一个仲裁员的任命需要来自节点、社区、本法庭三方中两方的核心权力批准。当一个反对仲裁员的违纪案件被通过(见2.2章),本法庭将直接干预具体案件并通过更换当事仲裁员来反对他们的意志。


本法庭将建立一个更换程序,来替换被证明不再合适处理一个案件的仲裁员。如果可能,任何这样的程序将寻求当事仲裁员的确认。


2.2 Liability

2.2 责任


All liability of the Arbitrator for any act in connection with a duly filed dispute is excluded by all parties, provided such act does not constitute an intentional breach of duty. All other liability of the arbitrators, the Forum and those working directly in the handling of cases, for any other act or omission in connection with arbitration proceedings is excluded, provided such acts do not constitute an intentional or grossly negligent breach of duty.


A claim regarding the liability within this clause can only be decided by a Disciplinary Case.


任何与一个正当提起的争议相关的行为,只要该行为确实没有构成故意的失职,仲裁员都将被免除对所有相关方的责任。任何和仲裁诉讼有关的行为或者疏忽,只要该行为确实没有构成一个故意的或者明显疏忽大意的失职,仲裁员、本法庭以及那些直接处理案件的工作都将会被免除所有其它相关责任。


一个依据此责任条款的索赔只能被一个具体违纪案件决定。


3 Filing a dispute

3 提起争议


3.1 Filing party

3.1 提起方


Any Community member (“a Member”) as well as other interested parties may file a dispute. Filing of a dispute constitutes agreement that it is finally handled under these rules.


任何社区成员连同另外的利益相关方可提起一个争议。提起一个争议即构成一个协议:该争议最终将在此规则下处理解决。


3.2 Channel for filing

3.2 诉诸渠道


Disputes are filed by sending an electronic message, using the method and format prescribed by the Forum in the Handbook.


争议通过发送一个电子信息并使用本法庭在手册中指定的系统和格式来提交。


3.3 Dispute

3.3  争议


The dispute must specify:


该争议必须明确:


  • Claimant(s), being the filing party(s).
  • Respondent(s), being the party(s) to whom the complaint is addressed, to the extent known.
  • The Complaint. For example, a smart contract has a bug, terms of a Ricardian contract have been breached, or a member has defrauded another.
  • The Relief, being the action(s) requested by the claimant. For example, to freeze a smart contract, freeze an account, remedy a default, or to revoke EOS tokens.


  • 申请人,即提起方。
  • 被申请人,即根据已知程度,控诉明确指向的一方。
  • 具体的控诉。例如,一个有漏洞的智能合约,一个李嘉图合约的条款被违反,或者一个成员欺诈了另一个成员。
  • 救济,即申请人要求采取的措施。例如,冻结一个智能合约,冻结一个账号,补救一个违约,或者撤回EOS代币。

All disputes are recorded. If the filing is inadequate for lack of information or for format, it may be rejected with explanation about the lack, or the case may be re-filed with the additional information, attaching the original messages.


Frivolous disputes are rejected. Abuse of filing can lead to fines.


所有争议记录在册。如果该诉讼因缺乏信息不完整或格式不完整,它可能被以不完善的理由驳回,或者该诉讼可在原始信息上补充内容后再次提起。


恶意的争议将被驳回。滥用诉讼将导致罚金。


3.4 Notice of Arbitration

3.4 仲裁通知书


On acceptance of the dispute, notice of arbitration is sent to all parties.


The notice of arbitration is deemed to have been received if it is sent to a Member’s account on the blockchain, which is a reliable message that preserves record of delivery on the blockchain. Other means of contact may be used at the discretion of the Forum.


当争议被受理,仲裁通知书将被递交给所有当事方。


由于区块链能够很好的保存交付记录使之成为可靠的信息,只要仲裁通知书被发送到一个成员的链上账户,该仲裁通知即被视为已接收。其它可能被使用的接触方法须由本法庭裁决。


3.5 Emergency measures

3.5 紧急措施


A party may request, before or during arbitral proceedings, an emergency measure of protection.


一方可在仲裁程序执行之前或执行之中请求一个紧急的保全措施。


Where a Member(s) has already executed an emergency measure of protection, for example by freezing an account, that Member shall be named as party to a duly filed arbitration to request confirmation of the emergency measure.


当一个成员已经履行了一个紧急保全措施,例如通过冻结一个账户,那么该成员应该被视为一个正式提起的仲裁中被要求确认紧急措施的一方。


If an emergency measure is requested before the composition of the arbitral tribunal, a single emergency Arbitrator shall be appointed who shall as soon as possible consider the request for emergency relief.


如果一个紧急措施请求在仲裁庭组成之前提出,一个单独的紧急仲裁员将被任命去尽可能快速的评估该紧急救济请求。


The emergency Arbitrator has the authority to order or award any interim measures that are deemed necessary. Any Member affected by such orders or interim awards shall undertake to comply with them without delay.


该紧急仲裁员有权力采取任何被视为必要的、以程序令或裁定做出的临时措施。任何与这样的程序令或临时裁定有关的成员,应该接受并无延误的遵循。


When the emergency has been processed, the emergency Arbitrator may decide to continue the case if further urgency is established. Otherwise, the case is processed with normal process and priority.


当紧急保全已被执行,如果该案件未来紧迫情况一旦成立,紧急仲裁员可以决定继续执行。否则,该案件将优先并按照正常程序进行处理。


Any ruling by the emergency Arbitrator should be reviewed within the duly processed arbitration and should be adjusted if necessary.


紧急仲裁员的任何裁决应当在正常执行仲裁的范围内被检验,并且必要时应当被调整。


4 Composition of Arbitral Tribunal

4 仲裁庭的组成


4.1 Number of Arbitrators

4.1 仲裁员的人数


By default one arbitrator is appointed (“the Arbitrator”).


默认情况下,指定一名仲裁员。


Appeals and Disciplinary Cases are heard by a panel of three, led by a senior arbitrator. In exceptional circumstances, the (single) Arbitrator may request the appointment of two additional arbitrators.


上诉和违纪案件由三个在册仲裁员庭审,并由一个资深仲裁员担任首席。在特殊情况下,一个单独的仲裁员可以要求任命增加两名仲裁员。


4.2 Selection of Arbitrators

4.2 仲裁员的挑选


The Forum selects the Arbitrator according to a mechanism that is approved by the Forum from time to time and published in the Handbook.

The Arbitrator needs to be independent from the parties and any other relevant persons.


The Arbitrator may refuse to handle the case and should do so in cases of conflicts of interests. If a conflict arises during the case or the Arbitrator becomes unable to deal with the case for other reasons, the Arbitrator should resign from the case.


本法庭依据本法庭随时更新批准并发布在手册中的机制来挑选仲裁员。


仲裁员必须独立于仲裁各方当事人以及任何其它相关人员。


仲裁员可以拒绝处理特定案件,并且一旦有利益冲突,则必须拒绝。如果利益冲突在审理案件中产生,或者该仲裁员由于其它原因不能再继续处理该案件,该仲裁员应该主动放弃本案件。


4.3 Challenging and Replacing Arbitrators

4.3 质疑和更换仲裁员


Parties may challenge the Arbitrator’s appointment only on the basis that the Arbitrator has a conflict of interest. Given the severity, parties should think carefully before challenging. Substantial evidence should be provided, and unsubstantial, frivolous or malicious challenges may be dismissed directly by the Arbitrator.


If the Arbitrator has to be replaced, the Forum appoints a substitute.


当事人可以质疑仲裁员的任命,且仅能依据该仲裁员有利益冲突。考虑严肃性,当事人应当在质疑前仔细斟酌。充分的证据应当被提供,且不充分、轻率或恶意的质疑,将可能被仲裁员直接驳回。


如果该仲裁员必须被替换, 由本庭指定一名替代。


5 The Arbitration

5 仲裁


5.1 Procedure and Latitude

5.1 程序和裁夺自由


The Arbitrator has the power over the proceedings in order to establish legal fairness. No party should be disadvantaged because of their unfamiliarity with the proceedings.


为了建立法律的公正,仲裁员有权掌控诉讼程序。任何当事人不得因为不熟悉诉讼程序而被处于不利地位。


The Arbitrator is required to:
1. Be independent;
2. Maintain the balance of power between the parties,
3. Give each party the appropriate opportunity to present their case and to respond to the presentations of other parties,
4. Conduct a fair and efficient process, and avoid unnecessary delay and expense,
5. Keep all communications in the case file.


仲裁员被要求:

1. 保持独立;

2.在当事各方之间无权力偏袒;

3.给予合适的机会给每一个当事人来陈述他们的案件,以及其它各方来回应;

4. 主导一个公平和高效的进程,并且避免不必要的延误和花费;

5. 在案件诉讼中保持全方面的沟通。


Subject to these Rules, the Arbitrator has wide latitude to conduct the arbitration in such manner as is considered appropriate. The arbitrator may for example:


  • Choose any communication method that is appropriate for the case and available for the parties,
  • accept new claims, and by this adjust the case,
  • reject claims, but allowing them to be filed in separate cases,
  • join additional parties or dismiss current parties,
  • join parties who are not members,
  • appoint experts, including translators,
  • consolidate or divide arbitrations,
  • adjust the expected fees,
  • demand and release bonds,
  • approve a settlement proposal put forward by the parties after their private negotiation

as the Arbitrator considers beneficial for the case.


在这些规则之下,仲裁员有宽泛的自由,以其认为合适的方式来主导仲裁。例如,仲裁员可以:


  • 选择任何对案件合适且对当事各方有效的沟通方式;
  • 接受新的诉讼主张,并依此调整该案件;
  • 拒绝新的诉讼主张,但允许它们被另外立案提起诉讼;
  • 召集新的当事方或者驳回现有的当事方;
  • 召集社区成员之外的当事方;
  • 任命专家、包括翻译者;
  • 合并或者拆分仲裁案件;
  • 调整预期费用;
  • 要求和释放保证金;
  • 批准一个当事各方私下协商后提出的和解方案。

只要仲裁员考虑以有利于案件为出发点。


5.2 Choice of Law

5.2 法律的适用


The governing law is as defined by the Constitution. The governing law is chosen as a public good and does not enter the parties into the jurisdiction of the governing law, nor expose them to requirements within that code to register, comply, etc. 


适用法律由EOS公约所定义。适用法律的选择从公共利益角度出发,因此并没有将当事各方纳入适用法律的司法管辖权,也同样使他们无需被强制于依照法规的要求去注册、遵循等等。


The Arbitrator, without disadvantaging a party in an unreasonable manner, may incorporate elements of other laws for parts or all of the case where:


  • It is deemed more appropriate to the substance of the case by the Arbitrator,
  • Where an applicable specific contract varies the choice of law and the substance of the case is found within that contract.

仲裁员,没有以不合理的方式使一方处于不利,可在以下情况下将其它法律的要素应用于部分或者全部的案件:


  • 它被仲裁员视为更加适用于该案件的实质;
  • 当一个适用的特定合约会影响法律的选择且该案件的实质基于该合约建立;

5.3 Jurisdiction

5.3 司法管辖权


Jurisdiction – the right or power to hear and rule on disputes – is initially established by clauses in the Constitution. The agreement to the Constitution must establish:


管辖权,即对争议有庭审和裁决的权利或权力,最初来源于EOS公约中相关条例。对EOS公约的同意必须建立在:


  • Who the members of the Community are;
  • That all members agree to binding Arbitration in this forum of dispute resolution;
  • The governing law;
  • That the members are obliged to keep the communication mechanism defined in §3.4 in good working order.


  • 谁是该社区的成员;
  • 所有的成员都同意遵循本法庭争议解决的仲裁;
  • 管辖法律;
  • 所有成员有义务保持定义在3.4章中的沟通机制处于良好的工作状态;

5.4 External Courts

5.4 外部法庭


An external court may have (“assert”) jurisdiction to decide on issues such as trademark, privacy, contract and fraud, and may do so with legal remedies. These are areas where jurisdiction may need to be considered carefully:


一个外部法庭可能有(或者宣称)管辖权去决定诸如商标、隐私、合约和欺诈的争议,并可能采取相应的法律救济。以下这些领域的管辖权可能需要被仔细的斟酌:


  • Where a party to the dispute is not a member of the Community and/or is not otherwise bound by agreement;
  • Criminal actions or actions likely to result in criminal proceedings, e.g., fraud;
  • Where a directly relevant law may speak against arbitration;
  • Legal process (subpoenas, etc) delivered by an external court of “competent jurisdiction.”


  • 该争议的当事人一方不是社区成员并且(或者)在此协议约束范围之外;
  • 存在犯罪行为或者行为很有可能导致犯罪诉讼,比如欺诈等;
  • 存在一个直接相关的法律可能声称反对仲裁;
  • 法律程序(如传唤等)等已被一个有“合法管辖权”的外部法庭递交;


The Arbitrator must consider and assert jurisdiction for the case either wholly or partially, or decline to hear the case.


仲裁员必须同时整体或部分的考虑评估具体案例的管辖权,或者拒绝受理该案例。


When an external court or similar authoritative body claims and asserts its jurisdiction on a matter, and issues a court order, subpoena or other service relating to or arising out of the blockchain to a member of the Community, the order is to be filed as a dispute, with the external court as Claimant.


当一个外部法庭或者类似的权威机构主张声称它对一个事件有管辖权,并且发布了一个法庭命令、传唤或者其它服务关联或者引起针对一个社区成员的区块链事宜,该法令将被作为争议提起诉讼,同时将外部法庭作为当事人。


Members of the Community, including Block Producers and developers, are granted no authority by the Community to act on the basis of any external court order, and ordinarily must await the order of the Arbitrator (which might simply be a repeat of the external court order).


社区成员,包括节点和开发者,被社区禁止无权根据外部法庭命令采取行动,并且通常必须等待仲裁员的法令(该法令也许只是简单的重复外部法庭的法令)。


The Arbitrator establishes the bona fides of the external court, and rules. The Arbitrator may rule to reject the order, for jurisdiction or other reasons. By way of example, if all parties are Members, then jurisdiction more normally falls within the forum. The Arbitrator’s jurisdiction is ordinarily that of dealing with the order, and not that which the external court has claimed to.


仲裁员证实外部法庭的善意并进行裁决。仲裁员可能裁定拒绝该法令,出于管辖权或者其它原因。例如,如果所有当事人都是社区成员,那么该管辖权更应该归属于本法庭。仲裁员通常本身具有处理该法令的管辖权,而不是外部法庭所宣称的。


5.5 Language of arbitration

5.5 仲裁语言


The proceedings and rulings can be in any language selected by the Arbitrator based on the case, the parties and languages used in relevant documents. The Arbitrator’s priority is to conduct proceedings and to deliver a ruling that is understandable by the parties.


诉讼和裁决可以由仲裁员根据具体案件、各方当事人和相关记录文件语言来选择任意语言。仲裁员优先于让各方当事人充分的理解的前提下,来主导诉讼和递交一个裁决。


The default language of the Forum is English. If the case is not conducted in English the Arbitrator is encouraged to provide translations of the core elements into English, especially where orders are issued to non-parties.


本法庭默认的语言为英语。如果该案例不是用英语来审理,仲裁员被鼓励提供对核心要素的英语翻译,特别是当仲裁令是公布给非当事方时。


The Community is encouraged to provide resources for translations. Translations should be coordinated with the Forum. The Forum strives for transparency so that cases can be easily reviewed by the Community in a wide range of languages.


社区被鼓励提供翻译资源。译本应该与本法庭保持一致。本法庭致力于透明,确保案件能够在广泛的语种范围内被整个社区轻松的检阅。


5.6 Representation

5.6 代理


Parties are encouraged to act in person. If they choose assistance and/or representation by another person the Arbitrator must be notified of who the representatives and/or assistants are.


当事人被鼓励亲自参与。如果他们选择助理且(或者)由他人代理,仲裁员必须被告知谁是被代理人且(或者)谁被协助。


5.7 Failure to participate in arbitration

5.7 缺席仲裁


If, upon being informed of a requirement or option to act, a party fails to respond without sufficient cause, the Arbitrator may continue with the proceedings. Such responses may include


  • Providing submissions,
  • Producing evidence,
  • Complying with an order.

The Arbitrator may decide to fine the party for intentional or otherwise grave delays or failures.


如果,一旦当事人被告知一个要求或者一个选择去行事,而该当事人在没有充分原因情况下未能做出回应,仲裁员可以继续进行诉讼。这样的回应可能包括:


  • 申辩;
  • 举证;
  • 遵循法令。

仲裁员可以决定对当事人故意或者其它严重延误、过失的行为施以罚金。


5.8 Transparency/confidentiality

5.8 透明度/保密性


The following elements of a case must be published:


  • The existence and the nature of the case,
  • the name of the Arbitrator,
  • the general status and progress,
  • the existence of any orders, and
  • the existence of any submissions by external courts.

以下案件要素必须公布:


  • 案件的实体和性质;
  • 仲裁员的名字;
  • 总体状况和进展;
  • 任何存在的相关法令,且
  • 任何存在的被外部法庭提交的相关论据。

This Forum is ordinarily transparent and the following elements of a case are ordinarily published to the community:


  • a reference to the parties,
  • The detailed status and progress of the case      including performed communication steps in a summarised fashion,
  • emergency measures, orders and rulings,
  • the ruling.

本法庭保持常规透明并且以下案件内容将常规公布给社区:


  • 关于各方当事人的介绍,
  • 案件的详细情况和进度,包括概括形式的执行沟通的步骤;
  • 紧急措施,法令和裁定;
  • 裁决结果。

Specific submissions and the evidence submitted are ordinarily confidential. The Arbitrator may decide to release (some) information by inclusion in the ruling or by other means, or make parts confidential.


具体提交的论据和证据通常是保密的。仲裁员可以决定通过包含在判决中或者通过其它方式来公开(一些)信息,或者使部分保密。


The Arbitrator has the full discretion to decide on the level of transparency that is appropriate for the specific case. The aim of the Arbitrator should be to establish a transparent collection of cases for the Community to review and reference, without violating reasonable privacy interests of the specific parties or other involved persons. 


仲裁员有完全的裁夺权来决定针对具体案件的适宜的透明度。仲裁员的目的应当是建立一个透明的案件收集渠道以供社区进行检验和参考,同时不违背具体当事各方或者其它相关人士的合理的隐私利益。


If relevant elements of the ruling are kept private to the arbitration, including the parties or other interested parties, this is to be noted in the public documentation together with the reason for keeping these elements private.


如果判决的相关内容对于仲裁,包括当事人各方或其它利益相关方保密,那么应该在公开的文件中注明,并说明对这些内容保密的原因。


5.9 Fees, costs and expenses of Arbitration

5.9 仲裁的报酬、成本、开销


As soon as practicable after the commencement of the arbitration, the Arbitrator shall deliver an estimate of the costs of the arbitration.


The costs of arbitration shall be fixed in the ruling(s) and are to be paid to the account of the Forum.


Such costs may include:


  • fees for the arbitration;
  • the Arbitrator’s expenses;
  • the costs of experts and translators;
  • other fees and expenses of the Forum related to the conduction of the case;
  • the reasonable legal and other costs incurred by the parties;
  • fines as levied by the Arbitrator for negative actions or behaviours;
  • any costs incurred in connection with a notice for interim or emergency relief; and
  • any costs incurred in connection with a request for consolidation of arbitrations.

当仲裁程序开始,仲裁员将在切实可行的范围内尽快的提交一份仲裁费用的预估。


该仲裁费用将固定使用在裁决上并且将被支付到本法庭账户。


这样的花费可能包括:


  • 仲裁员的报酬;
  • 仲裁员的花费;
  • 专家和翻译的成本;
  • 其它与本法庭审理该案件相关的报酬和花费;
  • 各方当事人产生的合理的法律费用和其它花费;
  • 由于消极的行动或行为被仲裁员征收的罚金;
  • 任何与临时或者紧急救济的通知有关的费用;
  • 任何与请求合并仲裁有关的费用;

6 The Ruling

6 判决


6.1 Contents

6.1 内容


The Ruling contains:

 1. The identification of the Parties,
2. the facts as established by the Arbitrator,
3. the logic of the rules and law,
4. the directions and actions to be taken by each party (the ruling),
5. the date that the ruling is rendered,
6. the name of the Arbitrator (as signature),
7. the distribution of costs for the case.


A reasoning for the decision should be provided to the parties in appropriate time and should become part of the case file.


判决包含:


1. 当事各方的身份证明;
2. 由仲裁员证实的事实情况;
3. 判决和法律的逻辑;
4. 裁决当事人各方需要接受的指示和行动。
5. 裁决被递交的日期;

6. 仲裁员的名字(签名);
7. 该案件的花费明细;


做出该决定的分析论证须在合适的时间提供给当事人各方并且必须成为该案件文件的一部分。


6.2 Remedies

6.2 救济


The Arbitrator may apply a range of remedies, on and off chain to settle a dispute. Rulings and instructions of the Arbitrator may include but are not limited to:


  • Revocation of tokens
  • Token and/or monetary (fiat) awards and damages in      relation to the case
  • Freezing of an account
  • Temporary or permanent exclusion of a member from      the Community
  • Reporting to applicable external authorities      including courts
  • Ruling on findings of fact
  • Changes to policies and procedures
  • Recommendation of changes to the Constitution

仲裁员可以申请一定范围内的救济措施,从链上和链下去解决一个争议。仲裁员的裁定和指示可能包括但不限于:


  • 代币的罚没;
  • 和案件有关的代币并(或)法币的损害赔偿金额;
  • 冻结一个账号;
  • 暂时或永久的将一个成员开除出社区;
  • 向可行的外部机构包括法庭进行通报;
  • 对事实认定的裁决;
  • 针对政策和程序的调整;
  • 针对EOS公约的调整建议。

6.3 Binding and Final

6.3 约束力和终审


The Ruling is ordinarily final and binding on the parties and the Community. Ordinarily, all members agree to be bound by this dispute resolution policy. Members must declare in the Preliminaries any default in agreement or binding.


本判决通常视为最终判决并且对当事人和社区产生约束力。通常,所有成员都同意被此争议解决的原则约束。成员必须预先声明任何不能履行的协议或者约束中的内容。


6.4 Appeal and judicial review

6.4 上诉和复审


In the event of clear injustices, egregious behavior or unconscionable rulings, a review may be requested by filing a dispute. Any such appeal has to outline


  • the claimed defect of the case or ruling,
  • how the defects affect the ruling,
  • that this effect is relevant and materially      damaging, and
  • what improvements to the ruling are sought.

为了防止明显的不公正,恶劣的行为或者不合理的判决,一个复审可以通过提起一个争议来要求。任何这样的上诉必要表明:


  • 上诉案件或判决的瑕疵;
  • 该瑕疵如何影响该判决;
  • 这种影响是相关的,并具有实质性的损害,并且
  • 该判决应该如何改进。

Filings that do not sufficiently outline the above should not be accepted. Issues that were addressed sufficiently within the original or a related case should not to be accepted. Appeals should be filed within a reasonable time after the issue becomes known to the party.


没有充分的表明上述因素的上诉不应当被受理。在原始案件或一个相关的案件中已经被充分表述的问题不应当被受理。上诉应当在该问题被当事人知悉后的一个合理时间内提起。


The parties of an appeal are the parties of the original case. Parties not affected by the appeal may be dismissed. Other parties may be joined, if necessary.


上诉当事人应该是原始案件的当事人。与上诉无关的当事人可能被驳回。如有必要,其它当事人可能被召集。


The Appeal Panel (§4.1) hears the case and delivers a final and binding Ruling.


上诉委员会(见4.1章)审理该案件并且递交一个最终的约束性的判决。


Questions regarding liabilities of arbitrators and other Forum members who acted based on these roles are not handled in an appeal. They require a Disciplinary Case (see §2.2).


关于仲裁员和依据这些职责行事的其它法庭成员的追责问题不会在此上诉中处理。他们需要提起一个违纪案件(见2.2章)。


By the nature of arbitration, parties have the right to seek judicial review from their local court, including petition to overturn a ruling. However members should note that as a matter of public policy, local courts will typically refer complaints to Arbitration if that was the original agreement, and will typically respect and enforce the rulings of a duly formed arbitration.


根据仲裁的本质,当事人有权从当地法庭寻求复审,包括请求推翻一个裁决。但是成员必须认识到,由于涉及公共政策问题,如果是原始约定,本地法庭通常将申诉递交给仲裁,并且通常将尊重且执行一个正当形成的仲裁的判决。